The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Introduction The prevalence of obesity in Jamaica has been increasing over the last fifty years resulting in the main public health concern changing from a high prevalence of undernutrition and infectious diseases to a high prevalence of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases CNCDs. Obesity is known to be associated with several chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension and their sequelae and early mortality. As a result, obesity and its associated diseases are likely to contribute significantly to health care costs burden in the Jamaican society due to increased morbidity and premature mortality.
The economic returns were calculated on the chemical control measure to control the insect. The growing concern of environmental pollution and increased pricing trend of imported chemical insecticides the research on host plant resistance has been initiated, the main objective of such research activity is to develop germplasm with high level of tolerance for maize stem borer and to make it available to maize breeders to incorporate the desired characteristics in the existing improved maize varieties.
A considerable success has been achieved and germplasm MBR has been identified through series of observation under natural and artificial stresses. The new material has shown a considerable tolerance for the maize stem borer.
Stalk rot disease and leaf blight disease: Maize stalk rot disease was a serious problem causing economic losses to maize crop. With these research efforts the presently all of the improved varieties can be grown without confronting any economic damage by the stalk of disease which has been eliminated to a level of nonsignificant existence.
Similarly selection and breeding for leaf blight tolerance is a regular feature of research activities. The current 155260 essay break-up as given below: Major distribution of the Total Maize Produced. The other major 155260 essay are the wet-milling industry and livestock feed.
Production of starch is the major objective of wet-milling industry.
The two by-products of the process are the assorted feed production and the edible oil. The production of maize oil is then very dependent on the demand for the starch component. The present status and projected potential for the wet-milling of corn in Pakistan is as given below: Current annual utilization of maize in starch industry.
In addition to edible oil the shortage of animal protein required for human health is an other problem. Maize offers best opportunity for converting vegetable protein into animal protein. The use of maize in poultry and livestock feed industry is restricted because of the availability of other cereal i.
Keeping in view need as well the expected increase in poultry production, the projected demand for maize may be as under: Present use of maize grain for poultry feed production per annum. There has not been a sufficient sure and effective market demand for maize to induce farmers to adopt the new technology.
The government very actively procure wheat and rice for distribution. There has always been, and perhaps still is, a psychological fear that harvest of these commodities will be insufficient.
Any increase in production would result in a surplus which would not probably find a market if it did find one, it would be at much lower price.
The recent situation of maize market can be best quoted for explanation of such a situation. The competition of products with alternative industrial and food products with in the country and export of raw grain or processed products will have to compete in the world market.
The future role of maize in overall economy of the country must be critically analyzed by the policy markers, not as an isolated problem but in its inter-relationship. Hybrid Development in Public Sector: A key issue for public sector maize breeders and seed producers is how to respond to the expansion in private research and seed production, and the best answer would seem to be a national maize improvement strategy that clearly outlines areas of comparative advantage and, possible, collaboration.
Should the public sector focus on marginal environments because the private sector can most likely conduct research and seed distribution for the favoured environments.
Should public sector researcher continue to develop open pollinated varieties for the irrigated valley and plain. How much support can be provided by the public sector for improving hybrids, and what kind of collaborative arrangements could be made involving, for example, private seed company support for public sector work on inbred lines.
These are important matters which will have to be addressed in the as the private sector maize seed industry grows in Pakistan.Essay Writing, Precise Writing, Paragraph Writing, Letter Writing and Reading Comprehension, all this involves the ability to comprehend, analyse and present.
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