Sudan Table of Contents The public and private education systems inherited by the government after independence were designed more to provide civil servants and professionals to serve the colonial administration than to educate the Sudanese. Moreover, the distribution of facilities, staff, and enrollment was biased in favor of the needs of the administration and a Western curriculum. Schools tended to be clustered in the vicinity of Khartoum and to a lesser extent in other urban areas, although the population was predominantly rural.
See Article History Alternative Title: Its rich biodiversity includes lush savannas, swamplands, and rainforests that are home to many species of wildlife.
Prior toSouth Sudan was part of Sudanits neighbour to the north. Children selling cooked corn in Terekeka, South Sudan.
By the end of the 19th century the Sudan was under British-Egyptian rule. Although the north accepted British rule relatively quickly, there was greater resistance in the south.
Sudan sits at the crossroads of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, its powerful neighbor, Egypt, bordering it to the north, Libya and Chad to the west, and Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east. Sudan's modern history has been consumed by revolution and civil war. The country attracted international attention in the s as a breeding ground of Islamist terrorism and recently tensions between the prosperous centre and the periphery, between north and south, have exploded in Darfur. This Site Has Been Disabled Contact your service provider for more information.
Because of this, British energies in the north were free to be directed toward modernization efforts, whereas in the south they were more focused on simply maintaining order, leading to a dichotomy of development between north and south that continued for several decades. An early conflict arose between those northern leaders who hoped to impose the vigorous extension of Islamic law and culture to all parts of the country and those who opposed this policy.
The Addis Ababa Agreement of ended the conflict only temporarily, and in the next decade widespread fighting resumed with the second civil war — Numerous discussions, cease-fires, and agreements between southern leaders and their northern counterparts occurred but yielded very little success until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement CPAwhich ended warfare and generated an outline of new measures to share power, distribute wealth, and provide security in Sudan.
Significantly, it also granted southern Sudan semiautonomous status and stipulated that a referendum on independence for the region would be held in six years.
Despite some obstacles, the eagerly awaited referendum did take place: The country of South Sudan declared independence on July 9, Physical features of South Sudan.
This river system runs from south to north across the entire length of the east-central part of the country. At the heart of the country is a clay plain, the centre of which is occupied by an enormous swampy region known as Al-Sudd the Sudd. There are two contrasting upland areas.
The Ironstone Plateau lies between the Nile-Congo watershed and the clay plain; its level country is marked with inselbergs isolated hills rising abruptly from the plains.
On the Uganda border there are massive ranges with peaks rising to more than 10, feet 3, metres. Drainage and soils The Nile River system is the dominant physical feature, and all streams and rivers of South Sudan drain either into or toward the Nile.
A little farther north along its course, the White Nile receives much of its water from the right-bank Sobat Riverwhich flows from the Ethiopian Plateau to join the Nile near Malakal.
It also would have drained the swamplands of the Sudd for agricultural use. The project was suspended in because of disruptions arising from the civil war between the north and the south. The southern plains consist of an alkaline soil that is a heavy cracking clay.
The clays of Al-Sudd were deposited in the area of impeded drainage.
Climate South Sudan has a tropical climate with wet and dry seasons. The seasons are characterized by the oscillation, north and south, of the boundary between moist southerly air and dry northerly air. This phenomenon, more specifically, involves the seasonal migration and pulsation of the northern tropical continental air mass and the southern maritime continental air mass, which are divided by the intertropical convergence zone.
In winter the north winds of the tropical air mass blow across the country toward the front, which may be as far south as the Tropic of Capricorn.
These winds are relatively cool and dry and usually bring no rain. By April the front begins to move northward, and the moist southerly air of the maritime air mass is drawn in from the South Atlantic Ocean.
Because of this, South Sudan has a rainy season, the total length of which varies according to latitude and is generally no more than eight to nine months a year, beginning as early as April and continuing as late as December.
The highest annual temperatures for most of South Sudan generally range from the mids to the mids F low to mids Calthough some areas toward the north of the country range from the mids to mids F mid- to upper 30s C.
The highest temperatures normally occur just before the rainy season. In South Sudan, most precipitation usually occurs during the summer months and varies across the country.Sudan sits at the crossroads of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, its powerful neighbor, Egypt, bordering it to the north, Libya and Chad to the west, and Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east.
South Sudan's President Salva Kiir is welcomed by supporters on his return from peace talks in Kampala, at the Juba Airport, South Sudan July 9, The history of Sudan includes that of both the territory that composes Republic of the Sudan as well as that of a larger region known by the term "Sudan".The term is derived from Arabic: بلاد السودان bilād as-sūdān, or "land of the black people", and can be used more loosely of West and Central Africa in general, especially the Sahel.
This Site Has Been Disabled Contact your service provider for more information. The region known in modern times as the Sudan (short for the Arabic bilad as-sudan, 'land of the blacks') has for much of its history been linked with or influenced by Egypt, its immediate neighbour to the north.
But it also has a strong identity as the eastern end of the great trade route. The region known in modern times as the Sudan (short for the Arabic bilad as-sudan, 'land of the blacks') has for much of its history been linked with or influenced by Egypt, its immediate neighbour to the north.
But it also has a strong identity as the eastern end of the great trade route.