Kung San who live similarly to their Paleolithic predecessors. Most known hominin fossils dating earlier than one million years before present are found in this area, particularly in KenyaTanzaniaand Ethiopia. Southern Caucasus was occupied by c. By the end of the Lower Paleolithic, members of the hominin family were living in what is now China, western Indonesia, and, in Europe, around the Mediterranean and as far north as England, southern Germany, and Bulgaria.
An Overview of the Paleolithic Prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. The Stone Age is usually divided into three separate periods--Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period--based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools.
Paleolithic Archaeology is concerned with the origins and development of early human culture between the first appearance of man as a tool-using mammal, which is believed to have occurred aboutoryears ago, and the beginning of the Recent geologic era, about BC.
It is included in the time span of the Pleistocene, or Glacial, Epoch--an interval of about 1, years. Although it cannot be proved, modern evidence suggests that the earliest protohuman forms had diverged from the ancestral primate stock by the beginning of the Pleistocene.
In any case, the oldest recognizable tools are found in horizons of Lower Pleistocene Age. During the Pleistocene a series of momentous climatic events occurred.
In large measure, the development of culture during Paleolithic times seems to have been profoundly influenced by the environmental factors that characterize the successive stages of the Pleistocene Epoch.
Throughout the Paleolithic, man was a food gatherer, depending for his subsistence on hunting wild animals and birds, fishing, and collecting wild fruits, nuts, and berries. The artifactual record of this exceedingly long interval is very incomplete; it can be studied from such imperishable objects of now-extinct cultures as were made of flint, stone, bone, and antler.
These alone have withstood the ravages of time, and, together with the remains of contemporary animals hunted by our prehistoric forerunners, they are all that scholars have to guide them in attempting to reconstruct human activity throughout this vast interval--approximately 98 percent of the time span since the appearance of the first true hominid stock.
In general, these materials develop gradually from single, all-purpose tools to an assemblage of varied and highly specialized types of artifacts, each designed to serve in connection with a specific function.
Indeed, it is a process of increasingly more complex technologies, each founded on a specific tradition, that characterizes the cultural development of Paleolithic times. In other words, the trend was from simple to complex, from a stage of nonspecialization to stages of relatively high degrees of specialization, just as has been the case during historic times.
In the manufacture of stone implements, four fundamental traditions were developed by the Paleolithic ancestors: Only rarely are any of these found in "pure" form, and this fact has led to mistaken notions in many instances concerning the significance of various assemblages.
Indeed, though a certain tradition might be superseded in a given region by a more advanced method of producing tools, the older technique persisted as long as it was needed for a given purpose. In general, however, there is an overall trend in the order as given above, starting with simple pebble tools that have a single edge sharpened for cutting or chopping.
But no true pebble-tool horizons had yet, by the late 20th century, been recognized in Europe. In southern and eastern Asia, on the other hand, pebble tools of primitive type continued in use throughout Paleolithic times.
French place-names have long been used to designate the various Paleolithic subdivisions, since many of the earliest discoveries were made in France. This terminology has been widely applied in other countries, notwithstanding the very great regional differences that do in fact exist.
But the French sequence still serves as the foundation of Paleolithic studies in other parts of the Old World. There is reasonable agreement that the Paleolithic ended with the beginning of the Recent Holocene geologic and climatic era about BC. It is also increasingly clear that a developmental bifurcation in man's culture history took place at about this time.
In most of the world, especially in the temperate and tropical woodland environments or along the southern fringes of Arctic tundra, the older Upper Paleolithic traditions of life were simply readapted toward more or less increasingly intensified levels of food collection.
These cultural readaptations of older food procedures to the variety and succession of post-Pleistocene environments are generally referred to as occurring in the Mesolithic Period.
But also by BC if not even somewhat earlier in certain semi-arid environments of the world's middle latitudes, traces of a quite different course of development began to appear. These traces indicate a movement toward incipient agriculture and in one or two instances animal domestication.
In the case of southwestern Asia, this movement had already culminated in a level of effective village-farming communities by BC. In Meso-America, a comparable development--somewhat different in its details and without animal domestication--was taking place almost as early.
It may thus be maintained that in the environmentally favorable portions of southwestern Asia, Meso-America, the coastal slopes below the Andes, and perhaps in southeastern Asia for which little evidence is availablelittle if any trace of the Mesolithic stage need be anticipated.
The general level of culture probably shifted directly from that of the Upper Paleolithic to that of incipient cultivation and domestication.
The picture presented by the culture history of the earlier portion of the Recent period is thus one of two generalized developmental patterns: It is generally agreed that this latter appearance and development was achieved quite independently in various localities in both the Old and New Worlds.
As the procedures and the plant or animal domesticates of this new food-producing level gained effectiveness and flexibility to adapt to new environments, the new level expanded at the expense of the older, more conservative one.
Finally, it is only within the matrix of a level of food production that any of the world's civilizations have been achieved. Although the dividing line between the Lower and Middle stages is not so clearly defined as that separating the Middle and Upper subdivisions, this system is still used by most workers.
Lower Paleolithic On the basis of the very rich materials from the Somme Valley in the north of France and the Thames Valley in the south of England, two main Lower Paleolithic traditions have been recognized in western Europe.The Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era) -from the beginning of human existence until around 12, years ago Why do we call this time in history the Stone Age?
During this time humans used stone to make tools and stone was used many times as part of the actual tool.
Tools are objects that make our lives. Paleolithic groups developed increasingly complex tools and objects made of stone and natural fibers. Language, art, scientific inquiry, and spiritual life were some of .
The Paleolithic is an era of history defined by the creation of stone tools, between roughly million and 10, years ago.
This period is . Paleolithic literally means “Old Stone [Age],” but the Paleolithic era more generally refers to a time in human history when foraging, hunting, and fishing were the primary means of . Paleolithic literally means “Old Stone [Age],” but the Paleolithic era more generally refers to a time in human history when foraging, hunting, and fishing were the primary means of obtaining food.
During the Paleolithic Era, the first tools ever were made. As we progressed, we even learned to communicate with one another.
Human technological and social developments made us move from continent to continent which forced our ancestors to deal with harsh weather and climates. This huge c.