Factors influencing Perception in Organizational behaviour A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception.
Understanding how people arrive at their choices is an area of cognitive psychology that has received attention. Theories have been generated to explain how people make decisions, and what types of factors influence decision making in the present and future.
In addition, heuristics have been researched to understand the decision making process. Several factors influence decision making.
Understanding the factors that influence decision making process is important to understanding what decisions are made. That is, the factors that influence the process may impact the outcomes.
Many types of heuristics have been developed to explain the decision making process; essentially, individuals work to reduce the effort they need to expend in making decisions and heuristics offer individuals a general guide to follow, thereby reducing the effort they must disburse.
People make decisions about many things. They make political decisions; personal decisions, including medical choices, romantic decisions, and career decisions; and financial decisions, which may also include some of the other kinds of decisions and judgments.
Quite often, the decision making process is fairly specific to the decision being made. Some choices are simple and seem straight forward, while others are complex and require a multi-step approach to making the decisions. The present paper will address decision making, in the context of types of decisions people make, factors that influence decision making, several heuristics commonly researched and utilized in the process of decision making.
Further, the paper will explore what happens after the decision is made, as well as how present decisions impact future behavior and decision making. Finally, summary comments will be offered, with implications for future research and practical application of teaching decision making skills in teens.
Factors that Influence Decision Making There are several important factors that influence decision making.
Significant factors include past experiences, a variety of cognitive biases, an escalation of commitment and sunk outcomes, individual differences, including age and socioeconomic status, and a belief in personal relevance. These things all impact the decision making process and the decisions made.
Past experiences can impact future decision making. Juliusson, Karlsson, and Garling indicated past decisions influence the decisions people make in the future. It stands to reason that when something positive results from a decision, people are more likely to decide in a similar way, given a similar situation.
This is significant to the extent that future decisions made based on past experiences are not necessarily the best decisions. In financial decision making, highly successful people do not make investment decisions based on past sunk outcomes, rather by examining choices with no regard for past experiences; this approach conflicts with what one may expect Juliusson et al.
In addition to past experiences, there are several cognitive biases that influence decision making. Cognitive biases include, but are not limited to: In decision making, cognitive biases influence people by causing them to over rely or lend more credence to expected observations and previous knowledge, while dismissing information or observations that are perceived as uncertain, without looking at the bigger picture.
In addition to past experiences and cognitive biases, decision making may be influenced by an escalation of commitment and sunk outcomes, which are unrecoverable costs.
Juliusson, Karlsson, and Garling concluded people make decisions based on an irrational escalation of commitment, that is, individuals invest larger amounts of time, money, and effort into a decision to which they feel committed; further, people will tend to continue to make risky decisions when they feel responsible for the sunk costs, time, money, and effort spent on a project.
Some individual differences may also influence decision making. In addition, older people may be more overconfident regarding their ability to make decisions, which inhibits their ability to apply strategies de Bruin et al. Age is only one individual difference that influences decision making.
According to de Bruin et al. Over and above past experiences, cognitive biases, and individual differences; another influence on decision making is the belief in personal relevance.Other Factors Influencing Perception Personal characteristics, such as past experience (learning) and motivation, may also affect the way stimuli are perceived.
Learning (a musician quickly learns the pattern of tones that make a melody and detects a discordant note). There are many factors that can influence social perception. Social perception can be defined as the process of perceiving other people. It is the process by which we look at other people and decide what they are like and how we will respond to them.
Such a process can be influenced by a number of factors. This suggests that an individual's social networks, or membership of social groups, are relevant factors that may aid understanding of perception and supplier relation management behaviour.
Consequently, an individual's personal historical trajectory through social groups (cf. social networks) is important. Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers' self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person.
An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. Feb 21, · Factors Influencing Perception Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli.
Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Personal and social factors influencing perception usually comefrom the same source. The media plays a large role in social andindividual perception because it only takes a fe.