Gender inequality in the psychology field

Gender differences in humans Natural differences exist between the sexes base on biological and anatomic factors, most notably differing reproductive roles.

Gender inequality in the psychology field

The Role of Benevolent Sexism in Gender Inequality Jacqueline Yi Society often fails to acknowledge that gender inequality, or the disparity in status and power between men and women, continues to exist today. Women remain significantly under-represented in higher-level, executive professions in the workforce, such as large corporations and government offices United Nations Development Programme, Traditionally, researchers and politicians have attributed this to individual-level factors, such as the difference between what a male or female employee is willing and able to contribute to a company Anderson, According to theorists Glick and Fiske, an unmistakable form of systematic oppression is hostile sexism, which is defined as any antagonism toward women who challenge male power.

Theorists have argued that large corporations and government offices are spaces frequently dominated by men Glick et al.

Such inequality is hardly unique to the United States, however. In the following Q&A, Mary Brinton—sociology professor at Harvard University—answered a few questions about how the United States compares to other postindustrial countries on gender inequality, as well as how gender equality can help solve declining birth rates. The Role of Benevolent Sexism in Gender Inequality Jacqueline Yi. Society often fails to acknowledge that gender inequality, or the disparity in status and power between men and women, continues to exist today. Men: A growing minority? The gender disparity in psychology is part of a larger academic trend: Women are increasingly outnumbering men throughout higher education, including doctoral programs. Psychology needs men to help think up ways to reach men who won't ask for help — and to help the psychology field be the most robust.

A woman competing against a man for a high-ranking position in one of these institutions may face hostile sexism because she is viewed as a threat to the status quo of male authority. However, women are also faced with a more understated type of prejudice called benevolent sexism, in which women are stereotyped as affectionate, delicate, and sensitive Glick et al.

Gender inequality in the psychology field

Benevolent Sexism In Intrapersonal And Interpersonal Contexts Benevolent sexism is evident in the interpersonal relationships between men and women. There are also more subtle, yet equally destructive interpersonal manifestations of benevolent sexism. Because those who accept benevolent sexist ideas typically perceive women as incompetent outside of domestic roles, men will see themselves as superior to women and will treat them in a patronizing manner Dardenne et al.

Benevolent sexism is manifested in a multitude of ways, and it is crucial to understand how this prevalent ideology perpetuates the existing gender gap.

One of the mechanisms through which benevolent sexism contributes to gender inequality is stereotyping. The system-justifying effect of benevolent sexism.

Another way that benevolent sexism contributes to gender inequality is through system justification, a cognitive process that occurs in response to a system threat i. Extending beyond mentally rationalizing systems, women who are part of cultures where men frequently hold benevolent sexist attitudes also tend to endorse such sexist beliefs themselves Glick et al.

Benevolent sexism, compared to hostile sexism, is easier for women to justify because it is disguised with positive stereotypes and seemingly provides personal benefits e. Therefore, through system justification, women often perceive benevolent sexism as fair, and thus have fewer difficulties in perpetuating gender inequality through the endorsement of benevolent sexist beliefs held by themselves or others.

Conclusion Benevolent sexism has various intrapersonal and interpersonal manifestations that have conditioned some women to physically, mentally, and emotionally rely on male partners or family members, making it extremely difficult for them to resist this oppressive ideology.

Thus, certain women do not feel the need to challenge a complementary view of societal gender roles. Through endorsing benevolent sexism, society is less likely to challenge the rampant gender inequality that exists today.

First and foremost, both men and women need to be educated about the insidious consequences of prevalent benevolent sexist attitudes. Lastly, both men and women would benefit from interventions that elucidate on the differences between benevolent sexism and politeness e.

It is important to note that the empirical work on benevolent sexism has several limitations. Since most of the reviewed research is correlational, one cannot establish that the endorsement of benevolent sexism causes an increase in financial dependence on male partners or the endorsement of hostile sexism.

Finally, the reviewed studies mostly utilize samples of white, heterosexual undergraduate students, and therefore their results are not generalizable to diverse populations that may have different attitudes and practices with regard to gender relations.

Most of the research on benevolent sexism is also conducted in cultures with low to medium levels of gender inequality, indicating that many members of these populations tend to view sexism in general as a negative ideology.anthropology; archaeology; architecture; art.

art criticism; literary criticism; film theory; biology; composition studies; criminology. pathways perspective; economics. Mar 20,  · As Women Take Over a Male-Dominated Field, the Pay Drops between the occupations and industries in which men and women work has recently become the single largest cause of the gender pay gap.

Evidence That Gendered Wording in Job Advertisements Exists and Sustains Gender Inequality Danielle Gaucher and Justin Friesen University of Waterloo Aaron C.

Kay Duke University playing field), institutions should be able . Dec 13,  · As revelations of sexual harassment break, women have been discussing the fallout and how to move forward. Here, women from across the working world take on this complicated conversation.

"It is rare to see a volume that does justice to the diversity of approaches to the psychology of gender. The Psychology of Gender, Second Edition, encompasses biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural approaches to central issues in a rapidly developing field, showcasing the increasing maturity of theory and the discussion of biological influences in gender as fluid.

Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal. Psychology Prenatal hormone exposure influences to what extent one exhibits traditional masculine or feminine behavior. Although the disparities between men and women are decreasing in the medical field, gender inequalities still exist as social problems.


What Causes Gender Inequality? -- Robert Max Jackson