Introduction With the modern technology evolution, employee monitoring has become a controversial in the world in last era.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. African countries are characterized by the economic instability and low level of the human rights culture.
Although there was a considerable progress in the human rights development in African countries over the last ten years, still the situation here is grave and requires immediate actions. The main body, which is responsible for the establishment and support of the human rights in Africa as well as all over the world, is United Nations.
In this paper I will focus in more detail on activity of the United Nations in the African region in general and in separate conflicts in particular. I will draw attention to the main achievement of the United Nations as well as to its main failures in providing the basis for the establishment of the human rights in African countries.
Development of Human Rights in Africa Human rights in sub-Saharan Africa continued to be assaulted duringdespite improvements in some human rights conditions and new prospects for ending bloody civil wars.
With the dismantling of apartheid and the extraordinary changes in South Africa, in contrast, tangible progress was made toward the development of a human rights culture Andreasse, Although the situation with human rights differs from country to country, it is obvious that one of the main problems there is impunity.
There were a lot of cases when the abuses were unpunished and the governments were changed not by means of elections but revolutions and armed conflicts. Human rights culture in Africa is really endangered due to the existence of the numerous autocratic governments and continuous revolutions and armed conflicts.
African countries are characterized by a high level of internal conflicts, like in case of such collapsed states as Somalia and Liberia, or as in case of Sudan and Angola, where civil wars took place.
Irrespective of the character of the conflict there was one common feature in them — they happened with impunity, which means that in these countries the notion of the human rights did not exist at all or was completely neglected Clapham, On the other hand the weak protection of the human rights can also be explained by the weakness of the social and state institutions in general.
For example in such states like Nigeria, Kenya, and Zaire this situation helped the political leaders to concentrate all power in their hands and thus establish their personal rule, which in fact contributed to the weakening of the human rights in the countries.
Even in case when the government of the country has changed and there appear some attempts to punish people responsible for the previous abuses, this usually takes much more time when necessary and sometimes ends with nothing.
Thus, as we can see in such countries as Ethiopia, Rwanda, South Africa, Malawi, Angola and Mozambique, there were attempts to establish the historical truth and punish those people guilty of genocides and crimes against humanity but for the most part theses crimes remained unpunished at all.
If we take for example Rwanda, here the case against abusers started but because of the inability of judicial system 57, people are still in prisons awaiting trial for genocide. There were even attempts to speed up this process with the help of the international organizations. However, even after a year of creation of the International Criminal Tribunal in Rwanda by the international community, it did not have that much influence on the situation with persecution and establishment of the human rights Season, Another example of the inability of the judicial system of the country to quickly respond to the issues of violations of human rights is the one in Ethiopia.
Still the other example can be presented by South Africa, where a National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation was established in order to hear applications for indemnity from prosecution for those people, who committed crimes against humanity. However, there are other examples, which show that even with the change of the government the countries are not always ready to establish the truth and punish those guilty for the human rights crimes.
For example, in Angola one of the issues of the peace agreement protected those, who violated human rights by giving a general amnesty for all illegal acts associated with the war. The other example is the situation in Mozambique, where neither RENAMO nor ruling party FRELIMO shows concern with the establishment of the truth and punishment of the people guilty in human rights abuses, although it is considered that there is a huge progress in the peace process in the country Human Rights in Angola, It is a sad situation that although in many countries of the continent democratic processes are taking place, still human rights are limited and not thoroughly followed because of the attempts of the governments to retain power.
Thus, the situation in Kenya shows that the process of democratization can just perform the role of the cover for the further autocratic and totalitarian actions. This is obvious with the general policy of the government of President Daniel arap Moi, which took control over the political opposition and journalists, as well as banned Safina, a new political party.
President of Nigeria Sani Abacha also used democratic changes as a cover for his far not democratic actions. However, this did not change the situation of the numerous journalists, supporters of the human rights and pro-democracy figures, who are still kept in prison.
The likewise situation happened in Zaire. Here as well as in Nigeria, the government declared the further transition to democracy. With the help of this announcement they extended its rule for two more years.
The other characteristic feature of the majority of the African political system is the failure to ensure the independence of the three branches of power.
Quite often judicial branch is used to support and cover the government, i. One of the examples of the above stated process is the situation in Nigeria. Here the governmental actions were covered by judicial branch.
It is obvious that in the process against alleged coup plotters, who were sentenced to imprisonment and death, the process was not duly observed and the defendants had no right to choose their counsel or the rights to appeal further to an independent court.
The same actions were done by the special tribunal of Ken Saro-Wiwa and other Ogoni activists. Nine people were sentenced to death and hanged just in some forty-eight hours after the conformation of the verdict by the Provisional Ruling Council without any right for appeal.
The unstated winner of the elections Chief Moshood Abiola was kept in prison without any stated time of his trial.
The other proof that the situation with the human rights in Africa is quite grave is the detention and constant harassment of the human rights and pro-democracy activists. The likewise situation happened in Sudan, where the government of arrested hundreds of demonstrators and kept the activists in prison for months without charge or trial.
One of the examples of this is the incommunicado detention of the former Prime Minister Sadiq Al Mahdi, who is a leader of the banned Umma Party.Human Rights In Russia. This paper will examine about promoting human rights in Russia by supporting NGOs. In my opinion, there are 3 strategy of European Union (EU) to promote human rights in Russia which include monitoring and reporting human rights situations, bring human rights NGOs into EU-Russia human right dialogue and spend considerable financial resources.
Government surveillances are generally targeted to human rights groups, reporters and political opponents. In some countries, the state owned telecommunications companies were active participants in helping the security services of their government to monitor human rights advocates.
The monitoring measures of the ICCPR are first, state parties are required to submit periodic reports to the HRC that must describe their efforts to promote the Covenant provided human rights and the developments in the provision of these rights. human rights monitoring capacities of civil society organizations in the OSCE region.
The curriculum was used on multiple occasions during its development to train Ukrainian civil society organizations as part of the Office’s project.
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