Who is to say, what is normal and what is not normal? Now, take it a step further.
But how do we know which condition they might have? How can we diagnose specific mental illnesses? To help them with this, psychiatrists and psychologists use specialised books, or manuals. In the 5th edition was published the first was in This is probably the most widely used manual worldwide, although it is not without its controversies.
See this link on the DSM website for more. It therefore covers a much larger range of conditions than just mental health disorders. It works in a similar way to the DSM, but the disorders are coded e. S ee this link for more. It is a good example of the way that diagnoses of conditions can change over time see below for more on thisas a result of changes in scientific or cultural ideas.
Some disorders are culture-bound they only occur in certain cultures and are unheard of in others. For example, anorexia may only occur in Western countries, so may be a culture-bound disorder.
Some of these are fascinating - see this list for the top ten weirdest! There are no universal indicators of mental illness! In other words, everyone is different and each sufferer will have their own unique combination of symptoms. It is therefore impossible to find one shared characteristic which can be defined as 'abnormal'.
The DSM uses checklists of behaviours, which patients are expected to show some of but not all. Our ideas of mental illness have changed over time! Homosexuality was included in the early versions of the DSM, but in most countries it would now be unthinkable to class this as a mental illness.
See here and here for more. All of these points question the validity of any definition of abnormality. Are we really measuring what we think we are, if it changes so often! Problems with diagnosing abnormality Would this label be helpful to a sufferer? Given that diagnosis relies on the subjective interpretation of the therapist, their opinions may vary.
As well as the point about validity of definitions abovewe can also question the validity, or accuracy, of the diagnosis.
If psychiatrists' diagnoses have low reliability e. They can't be diagnosing the thing accurately if they disagree about what it is! The Rosenhan study which you looked at in your AS Level is another good example. Also, we can question the usefulness of a diagnosis of abnormality. There is a social stigma around mental illnesses, which can lead to ethical protection from harm problems such as labelling.
The model believes that there must be something in the structure or function of the brain which is responsible for causing psychological problems.
Now listen to this podcast. Many treatments are biologically-based drug therapies are the most common treatment, but surgery and ECT may also be used depending on the condition.
Also the success of combination therapies suggests more than one cause. If you can't remember the key ideas such as operant and classical conditioning, then go back here and re-read the AS introduction page first.
Behaviourists believe that all behaviour good or bad is learned through our interaction with the environment. This applies to abnormal behaviour as well, so a psychological condition is simply a learned response to a particular set of environmental stimuli.
For example, phobias may arise from classical conditioning, where we come to associate a stimulus e. Symptoms could then be positively reinforced, for instance with attention and sympathy from friends and family.
Social learning theory could play a part too. The flip side of this is the belief that 'anything that has been learned can be unlearned', in other words behaviourists believe that by changing the environmental conditions, we can treat psychological conditions effectively.
This clearly has implications for the treatments that it will suggest.
Listen to this podcast to take your understanding further.PSY Essay One of the key issues in the Psychology of Abnormal Behaviour is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, also known as OCD. OCD is a mental health condition where you will have obsessive thoughts and behaviours (Martin, Carlson & Buskist, ).
The supernatural model states that people believed and explained abnormal behaviours in terms of supernatural forces. In other words, abnormal behaviours are caused by demonic and evil spirits possessing the human body. The Supernatural Model of Abnormal Behaviours Essay example - Over many years, people have been inquisitive about abnormal behaviours within their societies and beyond.
A typical question pertaining to these behaviours is, “why is he behaving this way.”. The Concept Of Normal And Abnormal Behavior Psychology Essay. Print Reference this own set standards of behavior and attitudes so anything that would fall outside the set criteria would be considered abnormal, psychologically referred to as deviation from social norms.
Psychodynamic, Behavioral and Cognitive approaches, and each model.
Psychological Models of Abnormality 2 Psyc – Abnormal Psychology Several Different Models • Learning Models • Cognitive Models 3 Psyc – Abnormal Psychology Psychoanalytic Models •Freud • All problems are related to systems in the unconscious.
• Remember the science behind the model you are using. • Correlations. The women’s suffrage movement is thought to have begun with the publication of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft in The Women’s Suffrage Movement Essay The Supernatural Model of Abnormal Behaviours Essay; Romeo and Juliet: A Text to .