Fewer than a thousand people in Italy have declared incomes of more than 1 million euros. Former Prime Minister of Italy described tax evasion as a "national pastime". This is called the Great Compression. Wealth and income[ edit ] Artist's depiction of U.
This large circular planisphere 6 feet 4 inches in diameterdrawn on parchment and mounted on wood in a square frame, is preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice.
The map was fully described and reproduced on vellum for the first time published by William Frazer in London and Venice, Manuscript on vellum, BL Add. Fra Mauro, a Camaldulian monk from the island of Murano near Venice, was active in about the middle of the 15th century.
The map was completed on 24 April and dispatched to Portugal, but for some reason has not survived. He died during the following year while working on a copy destined for the Seignory of Venice; however, Bianco or another of his colleagues produced the now extant second map, which was subsequently discovered in the monastery on Murano, then transferred to the Ducal Palace in Venice.
It is clear from numerous legends on his map that Fra Mauro was very much aware of the great deference then paid to the cosmographical conceptions of Ptolemy, and the likelihood of severe criticism for any map which ignored them.
Nevertheless, in general, Mauro stands by contemporary ideas and forestalls criticism by stating the following: I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy.
Fra Mauro map outline re-oriented with North at the top Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available.
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He claimed for himself to have done his best to establish the truth. This non-conformity clearly worried the friar, and he excuses himself by the following: Jerusalem is indeed the center of the inhabited world latitudinally, though longitudinally it is somewhat to the west, but since the western portion is more thickly populated by reason of Europe, therefore Jerusalem is also the center longitudinally if we regard not empty space but the density of population.
Like the Greek geographers before Ptolemy and like the Arab cartographers, Fra Mauro shows all of the continents as being surrounded on all sides by the great ocean. He did not see the earth as simply a disk, the circular form of the map was his way of depicting a sphere.
Facsimile of the Fra Mauro map oriented with South at the top Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them. It is said to be 22, or 24, miglia or more, or less according to various considerations and opinions, but they are not of much authenticity, since they have not been tested.
Fra Mauro, therefore, did not have a very accurate conception of exactly what proportion of the earth that he was portraying in his map. By moving its center eastwards, however, he had made the relative longitudinal extents of Europe and Asia approximately correct.
Putting the center at Jerusalem had of course resulted in the longitudinal extent of Asia being reduced in relation to that of the Mediterranean: Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period are oriented to the east.
But among the maps contemporary with that of Fra Mauro are the world map of Andreas Walspergerthe so-called Borgia world map of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappa mundi of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South.
Thus it is not surprising that, around the midth century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the south. Fra Mauro, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons.
Putting aside for the moment questions of interpretation, it is impossible not to be struck by the illusion of accuracy which the general shape of the continent produces here, especially when compared with most of the previous medieval European representations.
Details of Abyssinian topography have been expanded to cover most of the center and south, except for the southernmost extremity, which is separated by a river or channel, from the mainland and named Diab. Mauro apparently had knowledge of this exploration for he tells us as much in a rubric near the west coast of Africa and adds, circumstantially, that.Hey, you know how you can tell someone is a vegan?
Don’t worry, they’ll let you know. People hate vegans. It’s weird. You wouldn’t think that avoiding chicken nuggets would warrant the abuse. Update: A professor who studies race and ethnic conflict responds to this map.
Ethnicity, like race, is a social construct, but it's still a construct with significant implications for the world.
Why issues facing rich countries aren’t always the most important—and why charity shouldn’t always begin at home. Most people who want to do good focus on issues in their home country. I have read this topic on another site.. As much as I learnt about this topic is written here.
Education of any country depends on peoples living there and their innovative mind. According to this here is some countries which have best educatio. From data covering up to , the latest United Nation's World Population Prospects report shows that Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania are among the 33 countries whose population is projected to increase at least five-fold by Recent debates about globalization have led to a renewed interest in the reasons for inequality in development and, thus, wealth distribution among the world’s nations.